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Shot Sleeve - The shot sleeve is a steel tube that can be oriented horizontally or vertically in a die casting machine. It is part of the metal delivery system that interfaces with the die and shot end of the machine to allow molten metal to enter the die from the holding furnace. The shot sleeve typically has a pour hole, a collar to lock it between the die and platen, a ground I.D. of some nominal size and a wall thickness generally 1/2 to 1/3 the size of the I.D. The shot sleeve is generally susceptible to erosion, solder or lamination, and wear and in some instances breakage due to the high temperatures, velocities, and pressures of the molten metal. Shot Sleeve is also commonly referred to as Cold Chamber or Shot Tube.
Plunger Tip - The plunger tip is made of either steel or beryllium copper and is the primary device which pushes the molten metal through the shot sleeve under high velocity and pressure until the mold cavity is filled. The plunger tip is attached to a plunger rod or shot arm which is then connected to the hydraulics of the machine. The plunger tip is prone to wear and generally needs to be changed on a regular basis. Worn plunger tips can allow metal to bypass between itself and the sleeve wall creating a dangerous environment and poor casting quality. The plunger tip is typically watercooled and may also have varying configurations on its face and diameter. Clearance between the plunger tip and sleeve I.D. varies with the size but generally is between .001" and .020". The Plunger Tip is also commonly referred to as shot tip, piston, copper tip, or steel piston.
Plunger Rod - The plunger rod is the connection between the plunger tip and the shot end hydraulics of the shot end on the die casting machine. The plunger rod typically also provides the supply of water flow to the plunger tip for cooling. The plunger rod must have a supply and return. Generally the plunger rod has a threaded end either male or female and a coupler end which attaches to the shot end hydraulics. Some plunger rods use an adapter with male / male threads that can be easily replaced. Twelve threads per inch is the most common thread size.
High Pressure Die Casting - HPDC is a type of casting process that involves molten metal, high injection pressures, two or more part dies, and generally high volume of parts to be produced. Generally the metals used in this process are aluminum, magnesium and zinc. HPDC can be subdivided into Cold Chamber Die Casting and Hot Chamber Die Casting. Orientation of the molten metal and the injection process separate the two processes. Cold Chamber means the metal is placed into an unheated sleeve prior to injection into the die. Hot Chamber means the metal stays in a heat furnace during the injection process until it enters the die.
Ring-Out - Generally is the distance on a shot sleeve between the end of the sleeve at the parting line and the closest collar face. Sometimes referred to as the cover half thickness.
Pour Hole - The orifice on a shot sleeve that allows the molten metal to enter the shot sleeve/ cold chamber. The pour hole will vary in size depending on shot weight, sleeve I.D., machine tonnage, etc.
Baffle Assembly - This is the stainless or copper tubing that directs water flow inside of the plunger rod.
Shot Arm - (see Plunger Rod).
Plunger Stem - (see Plunger Rod).
Shot Tip - (see Plunger Tip).
Piston - (see Plunger Tip).
Cold Chamber - (see Shot Sleeve).
Cover Half - The die is made up of generally two halves. The cover half is the stationary half that is also closest to the shot end and hydraulics of the machine. The cover half generally has a hole for the shot sleeve so it can reach the parting line.
Ejector Half - The ejector half of a die casting die is also referred to as the movable half. This half moves with the locking force of the machine to open and close the die.
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